Canada’s population in 2023 is 40,097,761. This makes Canada the 27th largest country in the world by population.
Canada is the second largest country in the world by area (after Russia) and, as a result, it is also one of the least densely populated countries in the world – just 8.3 people live in every square mile in Canada.
Cities in Canada
There are five cities in Canada with a population of over 1 million people (Ottawa and Edmonton joined the million plus club in the 2021 census).
The table below lists the ten most populous cities. A list of all the cities with a population of more than 50,000 people can be found in our article on the largest cities in Canada.
Provinces and Territories
The table below lists the population of each province and territory in Canada.
|Province / Territory||Capital||Population|
|Newfoundland & Labrador||St John’s||510,550|
|Prince Edward Island||Charlottetown||154,331|
Notable population changes in the 2021 census were:
- British Columbia’s population passed 5 million.
- Prince Edward Island is the fastest growing province in Canada – it grew by 8% between the 2016 and 2021 censuses, slightly faster than BC which grew 7.6%.
- Yukon is the fastest growing territory – it grew by 12.1% between censuses, leapfrogging Nunavut.
- Newfoundland and Labrador is the only province that saw its population fall between 2016 and 2021 – it saw population decline of 1.8%. The Northwest Territories population also fell by 1.7%.
Population by year
The number of people living in Canada has grown between every single census since the first one was held in 1871.
The table below lists the population of Canada at the time of each census, and the percentage increase in population.
From 1871 to 1971, the census was held every ten years. Since 1971, the census has been held every five years.